5 The 1988 Montreal Protocol is one of the multilateral environmental agreements generally ratified with all 197 UN members on board, as in the case of the UNFCCC. International agreements are initially signed to indicate their intention to do so, but they only become binding through ratification. It may be an act of Parliament or some other formal adoption. Processes vary from country to country. Former U.S. President Barack Obama used controversial executive powers to ratify the 2016 Paris Agreement. According to the Brown to Green report, an analysis of the G20 climate record, Turkey, like most countries, is far from on the path needed to reach the climate agreement. The country still derives 38% of its energy from electricity generated from coal. The French president at the time, François Hollande, promised him that Turkey would not be seen as an industrialized country in the implementation of the agreement. Turkey`s current greenhouse gas emissions account for 1% of total global emissions and are expected to increase significantly as Turkey`s energy policy is expected to heavily subsidize coal in Turkey.  Turkey is one of the few countries to have signed the Paris Agreement but has not ratified it, in other words, it is a signatory, but it is not one of the parties to the agreement.
 In 2020, the government stated that as a developing country responsible for less than 1% of historic greenhouse gas emissions, Turkey`s position under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Paris Agreement was not at all fair.  In addition to the Energy Efficiency Action Plan and the Renewable Energy Auctions, Turkey has made little progress in implementing the fight against climate change and, above all, has still not ratified the Paris Agreement. In September 2019, ahead of the UN climate change summit, Turkey considered the financial package proposed by Germany and France, with the support of the United Nations and the World Bank, aimed at allaying Turkey`s concerns about ratification of the agreement, but to no avail at this time. The government appears to be stalling in the development of measures to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions: its 7th national communication projections (NC7) in 2018 have identical forecasts to those of the previous version (NC6) and INDC BAU 2015, while the fourth Biennial update report published at the end of 2019 projects almost identical emissions for 2030. However, the NC7 more accurately describes the guidelines contained in the NC6. The Eiffel Tower in Paris, illuminated in green to celebrate the entry into force of the Paris Agreement, the most ambitious agreement in history, on November 4, 2016 (Photo: Jean-Baptiste Gurliat/ Paris City Hall) Turkey and three major oil exporting nations are among the seven countries that have not yet ratified the 2015 Paris climate agreement. Angola joined Kyrgyzstan and Lebanon and ratified in 2020, meaning the 190-nation agreement was formally approved by 197 nations. The Paris Agreement itself renders the existing classification, that is, developed countries against developing countries, ineffective on the basis of unFCCC annexes. The agreement creates a new architecture for the climate regime, which brings together both the descending and the ascending elements. Footnote 1 At the heart of this hybrid structure is the deposit and verification system that allows parties to the UNFCCCNote 2 to adopt and improve their own contributions to reduction while reporting and ensuring the integrity of systems through a robust verification process.
The central element of the new system is the National Contribution Project (INDC), through which the parties have committed to achieving their own voluntary objectives, which will be implemented in accordance with the terms of the agreement. What complicates matters further is that the Paris Agreement is seen as universal in participation, given that all contracting parties, both developed and developing countries, agree to implement control measures