Wishing to promote the exploitation of scientific and indigenous and local knowledge on the living marine resources of the Arctic Ocean and the ecosystems in which they are present as a basis for the conservation and management of fisheries in the upper part of the central Arctic Ocean; 1. The Parties recognise that they are and will remain bound by their obligations under the relevant provisions of international law, including those contained in the Convention and the 1995 Convention, and recognise the importance, in the performance of those obligations, of terminating them or terminating the Agreement if no agreement provides for the establishment of an additional regional or subregional fisheries organisation or agreement to continue to cooperate. Fishing in the Convention area. 3. This Agreement shall not affect the rights, jurisdiction and obligations of a Party under the relevant provisions of international law, as set out in the 1995 Convention or Convention, including the right to propose the opening of negotiations for the establishment of one or more additional regional or subregional fisheries organizations or arrangements in the field of the Convention. Following several bilateral roundtables, Canada, the Kingdom of Denmark, Norway, the Russian Federation and the United States issued the “Nuuk Declaration” in February 2014 calling for action on the central arctic issue. The following year, these same states signed the non-binding “Oslo Declaration”, in which they agreed not to allow their commercial fleets to fish in the central Arctic Ocean until there was a sound scientific basis and an adequate management system (Norway in 2015). The Oslo Declaration also recognized the need to include other nations/jurisdictions with long-range water fishing capacity in this issue. (3) In accordance with Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council 7, the Union shall establish its fisheries relations with the external economy in accordance with its international obligations and policy objectives, as well as the objectives and principles set out in Articles 2 and 3 of that Regulation, in order to ensure the sustainable exploitation, management and conservation of living marine resources and the marine environment.
With climate change, ice has quickly disappeared in this area, with the latest studies suggesting that the area could be completely ice-free in the coming years, with some predictions as early as 2030. In fact, parts of the high seas of the central Arctic Ocean are already ice-free and accessible to ships during the summer months. With the reduction of ice in the Arctic Ocean, it is now possible for fishing vessels to enter the central Arctic Ocean and fish. The lack of scientific knowledge about the marine ecosystem and species present in the Arctic Ocean means that such a scenario could be catastrophic. For the duration of this agreement, such a scenario is avoided, as the main objective of this agreement is to prevent commercial fishing in the short term, until better scientific knowledge about the ecosystem is obtained. . . .